THESE STANDARD TERMS OF SALE (“TERMS OF SALE”) IS AN ELECTRONIC RECORD IN THE FORM OF AN ELECTRONIC CONTRACT FORMED UNDER INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACT, 2000 AND RULES MADE THEREUNDER AND THE AMENDED PROVISIONS PERTAINING TO ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTS / RECORDS IN VARIOUS STATUTES AS AMENDED BY THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACT, 2000. THESE TERMS OF SALE DOES NOT REQUIRE ANY PHYSICAL, ELECTRONIC OR DIGITAL SIGNATURE.
THESE TERMS OF SALE IS A LEGALLY BINDING DOCUMENT BETWEEN BUYER AND SELLER WHERE THE SELLER HAS MADE THE OFFER TO SELL THE PRODUCTS BY LISTING THE SAME ON THE WEBSITE AND BUYER HAS ACCEPTED SUCH OFFER OF THE SELLER BY AGREEING TO BUY THE PRODUCT SO OFFERED ON THE WEBSITE. THESE TERMS OF SALE WILL BE EFFECTIVE AND BINDING ON THE SELLER UPON SELLER’S ADVERTISING, EXHIBITING AND CREATING A LISTING OF THE PRODUCT ON THE WEBSITE, AND SHALL BE EFFECTIVE AND BINDING ON THE BUYER UPON BUYER AGREEING TO PURCHASE THE PRODUCTS SO LISTED BY THE SELLER.
In these Terms of Sale, a User (whether guest user or registered user) who purchase various Products (as defined below) from the Seller on the website located at the URL www.vambomart.com and mobile application under the name and style “Vambomart” (the Website) is referred to as “Buyer” and the Seller is referred to as an individual or any legal entity who list, advertise, exhibit, offers to sell, make available, market, sale and deliver any Products through the Website to the Buyer (referred to as “Seller”). These Terms of Sale describe, inter alia, the terms of offer for sale/sale, acceptance of offer for sale by Buyer and the purchase of goods and services (“Products”) through the Website from the Seller. These Terms of Sale also contains certain statements and disclaimers made by Vambomart (“Vambomart”) which shall be binding on Buyer and Seller, as the case may be. Sometimes both Buyer and Seller are collectively referred to as “You” with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions.
These Terms of Sale are subject to revision at any time and hence both Buyers and Sellers are requested to carefully read these Terms of Sale from time to time before listing any Product or before making any purchase of the Products. The revised Terms of Sale shall be made available on the Website. If such a facility is provided, You may determine when these Terms of Sale were last modified by referring to the “Last Updated” legend provided above.
You are requested to regularly visit the Website to view the most current Terms of Sale. It shall be Your responsibility to check these Terms of Sale periodically for changes and Buyer should also check Additional Terms of
Sale of the Seller on the Product listing. You may be asked to provide Your specific consent to any updates in a specified manner before any further use of the Website and related services. If no separate consent is sought, Your continued use of the Website following such changes and modifications to the Website or these Terms of Sale will constitute Your acceptance of such changes or modifications.
1. Offer and Acceptance of the Product
Vambomart also respects the intellectual property rights of all entities. If you believe that your intellectual property rights have been violated in any manner, please fill out and submit the Notice of Infringement of Intellectual Property Form (“IP Infringement Notice”) provided in the annexure below. Please send the duly filed out IP Infringement Notice via email to [email protected] Any incomplete or improperly filled out document may not be considered.
The availability of the Product under the offer to sell is subject to change without notice prior to the purchase of the Product by the Buyer. However, there may be circumstances where the Product may not be available to be delivered to the Buyer after the purchase transaction. In such an event, Seller may cancel or instruct Vambomart to cancel such purchase transaction without any recourse to Buyer and without any liability to the Seller or to Vambomart. If Buyer’s order is so cancelled, after the payment has been processed, the said amount will be reversed / remitted to the Buyer either to the bank account provided by the Buyer for such reversal, or to the payment instrument of the Buyer from which payment was made, or to any pre-paid payment instrument account of the Buyer. Vambomart shall have the sole discretion to determine the mode of reversal from the above options.
With respect to the sale of Product by Seller to the Buyer, the Seller hereby represents and warrants to the Buyer that:
- Seller has the right to sell the Products to the Buyer on or through the Website;
- Buyer shall have and enjoy quiet possession of the Products;
- Products shall be free from any charge or encumbrance in favor of third party;
- Buyer shall be entitled to all the warranties and other collaterals applicable to the Product or as generally made available by the manufacturer or seller of the Product;
- Product shall meet the description and specifications as provided on the Website.
3. Pricing Information
The Selling Price of the Product is subject to change without notice prior to the purchase of the Product by the Buyer. The Selling Price is provided on the Website on ‘as is’ basis as provided by the Seller. Due to technical reasons there may be errors in Selling Price which may be corrected by the Seller at any time and any acceptance of offer of sale by the Buyer of the Products subject to such faulty Selling Price shall, subject to discretion of the Seller, not be a valid acceptance and such transaction can be avoided by the Seller.
All prices are inclusive of VAT unless stated otherwise.
4. Delivery of the Product
There are various delivery models for delivery of purchased Product to the Buyer, as decided by the Seller. The risk of any damage, loss or deterioration of the Products during the course or delivery or during transit shall be on the Seller and not on the Buyer. Seller represent and warrant that the Products being delivered are not faulty and are exactly those Products which are listed and advertised by Seller on the Website and purchased by the Buyer and meet all descriptions and specifications as provided on the Website.
Buyer’s shipping address, pin code will be verified with the database of Website before a Buyer proceed to pay for Buyer’s purchase. In the event Buyer’s order is not serviceable by logistic service providers or by Seller or the delivery address is not located in an area that is covered under the order confirmation form, Buyer may provide an alternate shipping address on which the Product can be delivered by the logistics service provider or by the Seller.
Please note that there is no guaranteed dispatch time and any information about the dispatch time is estimate only and should not be relied upon as such. Therefore, time is not the essence of the bi-partite contract between the Buyer and the Seller for purchase and sale of Product on or through the Website. However, the Product shall not be delivered to the Buyer unless the Buyer makes the payment of the purchase of Product.
Buyer shall be bound to take delivery of the Products purchased by the Buyer that are said to be in a deliverable state. Where Buyer neglects or refuses to accept the delivery of the Products ordered by the Buyer, the Buyer may be liable to the Seller for such non-acceptance and shall further be liable to Vambomart for any loss of any fee or charges that Vambomart and its third parties shall have earned from the Seller if such delivery or transaction should have been completed. Buyer acknowledges that such damages or loss to Vambomart and its third parties are not consequential or indirect.
The title in the Products and other rights and interest in the Products shall directly pass on to the Buyer from Seller upon delivery of such Product and upon full payment of price of the Product. Upon delivery, the Buyer is deemed to have accepted the Products. The risk of loss shall pass on to the Buyer upon delivery of Product.
5. Return Policy for Products
Buyer’s Product related complainant for refund or replacement will the processed in accordance with the TrustPay Policy available at http://vambomart.com/trustpay/ Both Buyer and Seller agree to this TrustPay Policy. However, in the event of false, frivolous or baseless complaints regarding the delivery or quality of the Products, the Buyer will not be eligible for refund or replacement.
Before accepting delivery of any Product, the Buyer shall reasonably ensure that the Product’s packaging is not damaged or tampered.
The return process of a Product may be subject to additional terms depending on the nature and category of the Product. Any such additional terms may be specified on the Website or be intimated by the Seller at the time of purchase of the Product.
In the event the return of a Product is duly accepted by Seller, the value of such Product, as originally paid by Buyer during acceptance of Product, will either be refunded to Buyer either to the bank account provided by the Buyer for such refund, or to the payment instrument of the Buyer from which payment was made, or to any pre-paid payment instrument account of the Buyer. Vambomart shall have the sole discretion to determine the mode of reversal from the above options.
Buyer agrees that if the returned Product is not accepted by the Seller then Vambomart shall have the right liquidate or sell those Products and give all the valid title, rights and interests including warranties and other collaterals and benefits associated with those Products (as the Buyer would have received from the Seller) to any third party to whom those Products are sold.
6. Cancellation of transaction / orders
Cancellation by Seller: There may be certain orders that Seller is unable to accept and has the right to cancel either by the Seller directly or Seller can instruct Vambomart to cancel such order. Seller reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to refuse or cancel any order for any reason whatsoever. Some situations that may result in Buyer’s order being cancelled include, without limitation, non-availability of the Product or quantities ordered by Buyer or inaccuracies or errors in pricing information. Seller may also require additional verifications or information before processing any order. All such cancellation shall be without any recourse to Buyer and without any liability to the Seller or to Vambomart. If Buyer’s order is so cancelled, after the payment has been processed, the said amount will be reversed / remitted to the Buyer either to the bank account provided by the Buyer for such reversal, or to the payment instrument of the Buyer from which payment was made, or to any pre-paid payment instrument account of the Buyer. Vambomart shall have the sole discretion to determine the mode of reversal from the above options. In the event a promotional code given by Vambomart is used for the purchase of the Product, the amount under such promotional code shall not be refunded in case of cancellation of order. The above is the sole remedy of the Buyer and the sole liability of the Seller and sole responsibility of Vambomart for any cancellation of the purchase order by the Seller or otherwise other than by the Buyer.
Cancellation by the Buyer: In case of requests for order cancellations, Seller reserves the right to accept or reject requests for order cancellations for any reason whatsoever. As part of usual business practice, if Seller receives a cancellation notice and the order has not been processed, Seller may cancel the order and refund the entire amount to Buyer within a reasonable period of time. Seller will not be able to cancel orders that have already been processed by the Seller. Buyer agrees not to dispute the decision made by Seller and accept Seller’s decision regarding the cancellation.
Set-off of any benefits availed by the Buyer: In case the Buyer has availed any benefit under any marketing or promotions provided by Vambomart in relation to the Product for which the order has been cancelled by the Buyer or by the Seller, Buyer agrees and authorizes Vambomart to recover such benefits from the Buyer or set-off the same from any refunds to the Buyer.
7. Governing Law
These Terms of Sale shall be governed in accordance with the laws of India without reference to conflict of laws principles. You acknowledge that these Terms of Sale are solely for Your benefit. It is not for the benefit of any other person, except for Your successors and permitted assigns.
8. Disclaimer by Vambomart
Vambomart’s ROLE IS THAT OF AN INTERMEDIARY IN THE FORM OF AN ONLINE MARKETPLACE AND IS LIMITED TO MANAGING THE WEBSITE TO ENABLE SELLER TO EXHIBIT, ADVERTISE, DISPLAY, MAKE AVAILABLE AND OFFER TO SELL THE PRODUCTS AND TO ENABLE BUYER TO PURCHASE THE PRODUCTS SO OFFERED, AND OTHER INCIDENTAL SERVICES TO FACILITATE THE TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN SELLERS AND THE BUYERS. ACCORDINGLY, THE CONTRACT FOR SALE OF ANY OF THE PRODUCTS SHALL BE A BIPARTITE CONTRACT BETWEEN SELLER AND THE BUYER. AT NO TIME SHALL Vambomart HAVE ANY OBLIGATIONS OR LIABILITIES IN RESPECT OF SUCH CONTRACT NOR SHALL Vambomart HOLD ANY TITLE IN THE PRODUCTS. THE TITLE IN THE PRODUCTS AND OTHER RIGHTS AND INTEREST IN THE PRODUCTS SHALL DIRECTLY PASS TO THE BUYER FROM THE SELLER.
THESE TERMS OF SALE SHALL NOT AMEND OR MODIFY ANY AGREEMENTS, CONTRACTS, TERMS OR POLICIES BETWEEN THE BUYER OR SELLER ON ONE HAND AND Vambomart ON THE OTHER HAND.
Vambomart DOES NOT CONTROL, ENDORSE OR ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY PRODUCT (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO PRODUCT CATALOGUES) OFFERED BY SELLERS ACCESSIBLE THROUGH THE WEBSITE OR ANY LINKED SITES. Vambomart MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WHATSOEVER ABOUT, AND SHALL NOT BE LIABLE FOR, THE SELLER OR ANY SUCH THIRD PARTIES, THEIR PRODUCTS INCLUDING REPRESENTATIONS RELATING TO MERCHANTABILIGY, FITNESS OF A PRODUCT OR SERVICE FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. ANY TRANSACTIONS THAT BUYER MAY HAVE WITH SUCH THIRD PARTIES ARE AT BUYER’S OWN RISK. THE PRODUCTS SHALL BE SUBJECT TO SELLER’S TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR WARRANTY, SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE, AND Vambomart DOES NOT ACCEPT ANY RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE SAME. Vambomart ALSO DOES NOT ACCEPT ANY RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE USAGE OF THE PRODUCTS BY THE BUYER.
Vambomart SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY LIABILITY WITH REGARD TO ANY ILLEGAL, INFRINGING, FAKE, DUPLICATE, SPURIOUS, DEFECTIVE OR COUNTERFEIT, REFURBISHED, EXPIRED PRODUCTS PURCHASED BY BUYER FROM THE SELLER AND Vambomart SHALL NOT ASSUME ANY LIABILITY IF THE PRODUCT PURCHASED OR AVAILED BY BUYER FROM THE SELLER IS NOT EXACTLY AS PER SPECIFICATIONS DETAILED IN THE PURCHASE CONFIRMATION ORDER.
Vambomart is in no way responsible or liable for the offer for sale or sale of the Product by the Seller to the Buyer, its delivery, the warranty terms (if any) related to the Product and the return, refund or cancellation of purchase of any Products.
Vambomart does not warrant that the sale price provided by the Seller of the Product is accurate, proper and valid. Any error in the sale price shall be solely attributed to the Seller and not to Vambomart. Prices, Product description and availability of the Product are Seller’s responsibility.
Buyer expressly acknowledges that the Seller selling the defective Product will be responsible to Buyer for any claims that Buyer may have in relation to such defective Product and Vambomart shall not in any manner be held liable for the same.
Vambomart shall not assume any liability for the non-availability of the Product, delivery of the Product directly by the Seller and the installation of the Product where required.
Vambomart and its subsidiaries and affiliates and Associate Companies (individually and/ or collectively, “Vambomart”) is/are concerned about the privacy of the data and information of users (including sellers and buyers/customers whether registered or non-registered) accessing, offering, selling or purchasing products or services on Vambomart’s websites, mobile sites or mobile applications (“Website”) on the Website and otherwise doing business with Vambomart. “Associate Companies” here shall have the same meaning as ascribed in Companies Act, 2013.
- The type of data or information that You share with or provide to Vambomart and that Vambomart collects from You;
- The purpose for collection of such data or information from You;
- Vambomart’s information security practices and policies; and
- Information collected and storage of such Information:
The “Information” (which shall also include data) provided by You to Vambomart or collected from You by Vambomart may consist of “Personal Information” and “Non-Personal Information”.
- Personal Information:
- Your user name along with Your password,
- Your name,
- Your address,
- Your telephone number,
- Your e-mail address or other contact information,
- Your date of birth,
- Your gender,
- Information regarding your transactions on the Website, (including sales or purchase history),
- Your financial information such as bank account information or credit card or debit card or other payment instrument details including OTP,
- Internet Protocol address,
- Any other items of ‘sensitive personal data or information’ as such term is defined under the Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices And Procedures And Sensitive Personal Data Of Information) Rules, 2011 enacted under the Information Technology Act, 2000;
- Identification code of your communication device which You use to access the Website or otherwise deal with any Vambomart entity,
- Any other Information that You provide during Your registration process, if any, on the Website. Such Personal Information may be collected in various ways including during the course of You:
- registering as a user on the Website,
- registering as a seller on the Website,
- availing certain services offered on the Website. Such instances include but are not limited to making an offer for sale, online purchase, participating in any online survey or contest, communicating with Vambomart’s customer service by phone, email or otherwise or posting user reviews on the items available on the Website, or
- Non-Personal Information:
Vambomart may also collect information other than Personal Information from You through the Website when You visit and / or use the Website. Such information may be stored in server logs. This Non-Personal Information would not assist Vambomart to identify You personally. This Non-Personal Information may include:
- Your geographic location,
- details of Your telecom service provider or internet service provider,
- the type of browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Google Chrome etc.),
- the operating system of Your system, device and the Website You last visited before visiting the Website,
- Your installed packages information
You hereby represent to Vambomart that:
- the Information you provide to Vambomart from time to time is and shall be authentic, correct, current and updated and You have all the rights, permissions and consents as may be required to provide such Information to Vambomart.
- Your providing the Information to Vambomart and Vambomart’s consequent storage, collection, usage, transfer, access or processing of the same shall not be in violation of any third party agreement, laws, charter documents, judgments, orders and decrees.
- Your Information will primarily be stored in electronic form however certain data can also be stored in physical form. We may store, collect, process and use your data in countries other than Republic of India but under compliance with applicable laws. We may enter into agreements with third parties (in or outside of India) to store or process your information or data. These third parties may have their own security standards to safeguard your information or data and we will on commercial reasonable basis require from such third parties to adopt reasonable security standards to safeguard your information / data.
- Purpose for collecting, using, storing and processing Your Information Vambomart collects, uses, stores and processes Your Information for any purpose as may be permissible under applicable laws (including where the applicable law provides for such collection, usage, storage or processes in accordance with the consent of the user) connected with a function or activity of each of Vambomart entities and shall include the following:
- to facilitate Your use of the Website or other services of Vambomart entities;
- to respond to Your inquiries or fulfil Your requests for information about the various products and services offered on the Website;
- to provide You with information about products and services available on the Website and to send You information, materials, and offers from Vambomart;
- to send You important information regarding the Website, changes in terms and conditions, user agreements, and policies and/or other administrative information;
- to send You surveys and marketing communications that Vambomart believes may be of interest to You;
- to personalize Your experience on the Website by presenting advertisements, products and offers tailored to Your preferences;
- to help You address Your problems incurred on the Website including addressing any technical problems;
- if You purchase any product or avail of any service from the Website, to complete and fulfil Your purchase, for example, to have Your payments processed, communicate with You regarding Your purchase and provide You with related customer service;
- for proper administering of the Website;
- to conduct internal reviews and data analysis for the Website (e.g., to determine the number of visitors to specific pages within the Website);
- to improve the services, content and advertising on the Website;
- to provide value added services such as Single Sign On. Single Sign On shall mean a session/user authentication process that permits a user to enter his/her name or mobile number or e-mail address or any combination thereof and password in order to access multiple websites and applications;
- to facilitate seamless purchase experience while making a transaction by pre-populating the OTP received through SMS by you
- to facilitate various programmes and initiatives launched by Vambomart or third party service providers and business associates
- to analyze how our services are used, to measure the effectiveness of advertisements, to facilitating payments
- to conducting academic research and surveys
- to protect the integrity of the Website;
- to respond to legal, judicial, quasi judicial process and provide information to law enforcement agencies or in connection with an investigation on matters related to public safety, as permitted by law;
- to conduct analytical studies on various aspects including user behaviour, user preferences etc.;
- to permit third parties who may need to contact users who have bought products from the Website to facilitate installation, service and any other product related support;
- to implement information security practices;
- to determine any security breaches, computer contaminant or computer virus;
- to investigate, prevent, or take action regarding illegal activities and suspected fraud,
- to undertake forensics of the concerned computer resource as a part of investigation or internal audit;
- to trace computer resources or any person who may have contravened, or is suspected of having or being likely to contravene, any provision of law including the Information Technology Act, 2000 that is likely to have an adverse impact on the services provided on any Website or by Vambomart;
Sharing and disclosure of Your Information
You hereby unconditionally agree and permit that Vambomart may transfer, share, disclose or part with all or any of Your Information, within and outside of the Republic of India to various Vambomart entities and to third party service providers / partners / banks and financial institutions for one or more of the Purposes or as may be required by applicable law. In such case we will contractually oblige the receiving parties of the Information to ensure the same level of data protection that is adhered to by Vambomart under applicable law.
You unconditionally agree and permit Vambomart to access and read your SMS to autofill or prepopulate ‘OTP’ while making a transaction and to validate your mobile number.
Vambomart may also share Personal Information if Vambomart believe it is necessary in order to investigate, prevent, or take action regarding illegal activities, suspected fraud, situations involving potential threats to the physical safety of any person, violations of various terms and conditions or our policies.
We reserve the right to disclose your information when required to do so by law or regulation, or under any legal obligation or order under law or in response to a request from a law enforcement or governmental agency or judicial, quasi-judicial or any other statutory or constitutional authority or to establish or exercise our legal rights or defend against legal claims.
You further agree that such disclosure, sharing and transfer of Your Personal Information and Non-Personal Information shall not cause any wrongful loss to You or to any third party, or any wrongful gain to us or to any third party.
Links to third party websites
Links to third-party advertisements, third-party websites or any third party electronic communication service may be provided on the Website which are operated by third parties and are not controlled by, or affiliated to, or associated with, Vambomart unless expressly specified on the Website.
Security & Retention
The security of your Personal Information is important to us. Vambomart strives to ensure the security of Your Personal Information and to protect Your Personal Information against unauthorized access or unauthorized alteration, disclosure or destruction. For this purpose, Vambomart adopts internal reviews of the data collection, storage and processing practices and security measures, including appropriate encryption and physical security measures to guard against unauthorized access to systems where Vambomart stores Your Personal Information. Each of the Vambomart entity shall adopt reasonable security practices and procedures as mandated under applicable laws for the protection of Your Information. Provided that Your right to claim damages shall be limited to the right to claim only statutory damages under Information Technology Act, 2000 and You hereby waive and release all Vambomart entities from any claim of damages under contract or under tort.
If you choose a payment gateway to complete any transaction on Website then Your credit card data may be stored in compliance with industry standards/ recommended data security standard for security of financial information such as the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI-DSS).
Vambomart may share your Information with third parties under a confidentiality agreement which inter alia provides for that such third parties not disclosing the Information further unless such disclosure is for the Purpose. However, Vambomart is not responsible for any breach of security or for any actions of any third parties that receive Your Personal Information. Vambomart is not liable for any loss or injury caused to You as a result of You providing Your Personal Information to third party (including any third party websites, even if links to such third party websites are provided on the Website).
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Policy or elsewhere, Vambomart shall not be held responsible for any loss, damage or misuse of Your Personal Information, if such loss, damage or misuse is attributable to a Force Majeure Event (as defined below).
A Force Majeure Event shall mean any event that is beyond the reasonable control of Vambomart and shall include, without limitation, sabotage, fire, flood, explosion, acts of God, civil commotion, strikes or industrial action of any kind, riots, insurrection, war, acts of government, computer hacking, unauthorised access to computer, computer system or computer network,, computer crashes, breach of security and encryption (provided beyond reasonable control of Vambomart), power or electricity failure or unavailability of adequate power or electricity.
While We will endeavor to take all reasonable and appropriate steps to keep secure any Personal Information which We hold about You and prevent unauthorized access, You acknowledge that the internet or computer networks are not fully secure and that We cannot provide any absolute assurance regarding the security of Your Personal Information.
You agree that all Personal Information shall be retained till such time required for the Purpose or required under applicable law, whichever is later. Non-Personal Information will be retained indefinitely.
User discretion and opt out
You agree and acknowledge that You are providing your Information out of your free will. You have an option not to provide or permit Vambomart to collect Your Personal Information or later on withdraw Your consent with respect to such Personal Information so provided herein by sending an email to the grievance officer or such other electronic address of the respective Vambomart entity as may be notified to You. In such case, You should neither visit any Website nor use any services provided by Vambomart entities nor shall contact any of Vambomart entities. Further, Vambomart may not deliver products to You, upon Your order, or Vambomart may deny you access from using certain services offered on the Website.
You can add or update Your Personal Information on regular basis. Kindly note that Vambomart would retain Your previous Personal Information in its records.
Mr. Rakesh Yadav, the designated grievance officer under Information Technology Act, 2000
E-mail: [email protected]
Business / Assets Sale or Transfers
- is clear and easily accessible and provide statements of Vambomart policies and practices with respective to the Information;
- provides for the various types of personal or sensitive personal data of information to be collected;
- provides for the purposes of collection and usage of the Information;
- provides for disclosure of Information; and
- provides for reasonable security practices and procedures.